Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects approximately 1 in 10 women of reproductive age. Characterized by a combination of hormonal imbalances, irregular menstrual cycles, and the formation of cysts on the ovaries, PCOS can impact a woman’s fertility, physical health, and emotional well-being.  

In this article, we will delve into various aspects of PCOS, including its symptoms, causes, diagnostic criteria, and treatment options. With expert advice and recommendations from Dr. Hessel, we aim to empower women living with PCOS by providing practical information and tips for managing this often misunderstood hormonal disorder. Our goal is to help women living with PCOS feel informed, understood, and supported on their health journey.

Living with PCOS can be challenging, but with the right guidance, personalized treatment plans, and lifestyle adjustments, women can successfully manage their symptoms and improve their overall quality of life. Trust Dr. Hessel to help you navigate the complexities of PCOS and develop an effective and empowering care plan tailored to your unique needs. As a board-certified obstetrician/gynecologist with over 25 years of experience in Forest Hills, NY, Barbara A. Hessel, MD. FACOG is committed to providing the necessary support, education, and guidance for women living with PCOS, helping them take control of their health and lead fulfilling lives.

Symptoms and Manifestations of PCOS

Polycystic ovary syndrome can present a range of symptoms that vary in severity from one individual to another. Some common manifestations of PCOS include:

1. Irregular Periods: Women with PCOS often experience infrequent, irregular, or prolonged menstrual cycles, leading to fewer than eight cycles per year or cycles lasting longer than 35 days.

2. Excess Androgen: Elevated levels of male hormones (androgens) in women with PCOS can result in physical signs such as excess facial and body hair growth, severe acne, and male-pattern baldness.

3. Polycystic Ovaries: Women with PCOS may develop enlarged ovaries containing numerous small follicles, which are visible on an ultrasound examination.

Understanding the Causes of PCOS

While the exact cause of PCOS remains unknown, a combination of genetic and environmental factors likely contributes to its development. Some key factors that may play a role in triggering PCOS include:

1. Insulin Resistance: Many women with PCOS have insulin resistance, a condition where the body’s cells do not respond effectively to the hormone insulin. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin, which can stimulate the ovaries to produce more androgens.

2. Inflammation: Women with PCOS often have increased levels of inflammation in their bodies, which can contribute to the overproduction of androgens and the development of insulin resistance.

3. Heredity: Genetic factors may predispose some women to PCOS, as it tends to run in families.

Diagnosing and Assessing PCOS

To diagnose PCOS, healthcare professionals like Dr. Hessel will consider a combination of factors, including medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Some common assessments include:

1. Medical History Review: Dr. Hessel will carefully consider your medical history, taking into account any family history of PCOS or other hormonal disorders, as well as the presence of symptoms associated with PCOS.

2. Physical Examination: A thorough physical examination can help identify any physical manifestations of PCOS, such as excess hair growth, acne, or obesity.

3. Diagnostic Tests: Blood tests to measure hormone levels, glucose levels, and cholesterol may be used to further evaluate your condition. In addition, an ultrasound examination can provide visual evidence of polycystic ovaries.

Treatment and Management of PCOS

There is no cure for PCOS; however, various treatments can help manage symptoms and improve overall health. Dr. Hessel may recommend one or more of the following treatment options tailored to your specific needs:

1. Hormonal Therapy: Hormonal medications, such as birth control pills or metformin, can help regulate menstrual cycles, reduce androgen levels, and improve insulin sensitivity.

2. Lifestyle Modifications: Positive lifestyle changes, such as adopting a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy weight, can help improve insulin resistance, lower inflammation levels, and alleviate PCOS symptoms.

3. Fertility Treatments: For women with PCOS looking to conceive, fertility treatments, such as ovulation induction or in-vitro fertilization (IVF), may be recommended.

4. Mental Health Support: Living with PCOS can impact emotional well-being, making it essential to prioritize mental health care, such as therapy or support groups.

Lifestyle Adjustments for Living with PCOS

In addition to medical treatments, women with PCOS can make certain lifestyle adjustments to improve their overall health and well-being:

1. Adopt a Balanced Diet: Focus on consuming nutrient-dense foods composed of complex carbohydrates, lean proteins, and healthy fats to help manage insulin resistance and inflammation.

2. Engage in Regular Exercise: Incorporate moderate physical activity into your daily routine to help maintain a healthy weight, alleviate insulin resistance, and reduce inflammation.

3. Manage Stress: Practice stress-reducing techniques, such as deep breathing exercises, yoga, or meditation, to help balance hormones and promote overall well-being.

4. Seek Support: Connect with other women living with PCOS through support groups, online forums, or counseling to receive emotional encouragement and practical advice for managing this condition.


Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex and often misunderstood hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. By learning more about PCOS, seeking appropriate treatment, and adopting lifestyle adjustments, women with PCOS can effectively manage their symptoms and improve their overall health and well-being. Barbara A. Hessel, MD. FACOG is committed to providing comprehensive care for women with PCOS, supporting them through every step of their health journey.
If you suspect that you have PCOS or require guidance in managing your symptoms, don’t hesitate to schedule an appointment today with Barbara A. Hessel, MD. FACOG, the best certified obstetrician in Forest Hills, NY. With expert care and personalized support, you can gain control over your PCOS and lead a healthy, fulfilling life.