Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent health condition impacting one in ten globally. Characterized by an imbalance in reproductive hormones, this syndrome can lead to irregular menstrual periods, skin changes, and in some cases, difficulty with fertility. Recognizing the critical role of accurate information in guiding women affected by PCOS, Barbara A. Hessel, MD. FACOG, an esteemed obstetrician/gynecologist with over 25 years of practice in Forest Hills, NY, provides an in-depth look at this complex disorder.

Understanding PCOS and learning how to manage it effectively is a key part of reproductive health. In the sections that follow, we will delve into the various symptoms of PCOS, the vital role of early diagnosis, and the importance of comprehensive disease management. We will also explore how PCOS influences a woman’s overall health and well-being and identify some lifestyle modifications that can aid in handling the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of PCOS

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) exhibits a wide range of symptoms, which can vary greatly between individuals. Some of the most common signs include:

1. Irregular Periods: The most common symptom is infrequent or prolonged menstrual cycles, resulting from irregular ovulation.

2. Excess Androgen: High levels of male hormones (androgens) can cause physical changes such as acne, oily skin, male-pattern hair growth (hirsutism), and hair loss.

3. Polycystic Ovaries: Ovaries may become enlarged and contain numerous small, fluid-filled follicles that fail to develop fully and release eggs.

4. Weight Gain: Many women with PCOS experience weight gain and difficulty losing weight, leading to further complications.

The Importance of Early Diagnosis and Tests

A timely and accurate diagnosis of PCOS is essential for effective management. Appropriate tests and examinations can identify the syndrome early, helping to minimize the risk of associated complications. Diagnostic processes may include:

1. Medical History Review: A thorough evaluation of a patient’s medical history, past symptoms, and family history is crucial in understanding risk factors.

2. Physical Examination: This examination may involve checking the body for signs of excessive hair growth, acne, or other indications of increased androgen levels. A pelvic exam may also be performed to assess the presence of polycystic ovaries.

3. Blood Tests: Measurements of hormone levels, such as androgens and insulin, can provide valuable information for diagnosis.

4. Ultrasound: Identification of ovarian cysts or enlarged ovaries can confirm the PCOS diagnosis.

Comprehensive Disease Management Options

There is no cure for PCOS, but effective management strategies can help alleviate symptoms and reduce associated risks. Some treatment options may include:

1. Hormonal Therapy: Birth control pills or other hormonal medications can help regulate periods, reduce excess androgen, and manage issues such as acne or hair growth.

2. Lifestyle Modifications: Weight loss, changes in diet, and regular exercise can help improve insulin resistance and reduce PCOS symptoms. A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains is recommended.

3. Medications for Insulin Resistance: In some cases, medications like Metformin may be prescribed to address insulin resistance and improve hormone balance.

4. Fertility Treatments: For women struggling with infertility due to PCOS, fertility medications or assisted reproductive technologies may be viable options.

The Impact of PCOS on Overall Health and Well-being

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome not only affects reproductive health but can also have broader implications for general health and well-being:

1. Psychological Impact: The physical symptoms associated with PCOS can contribute to feelings of low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression.

2. Metabolic Syndrome: Women with PCOS have a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome, characterized by high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol levels.

3. Type 2 Diabetes: Insulin resistance in PCOS sufferers increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

4. Sleep Disorders: Elevated androgen levels linked to PCOS may contribute to sleep disturbances like sleep apnea.


Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a complex endocrine disorder requiring proper understanding, accurate diagnosis, and comprehensive management to mitigate its impact on patients’ lives. By familiarizing yourself with the wide-ranging symptoms of PCOS and embracing early diagnosis and treatment strategies, you can effectively confront the challenges associated with this condition. Moreover, adopting lifestyle modifications and prioritizing overall health and wellness can significantly improve the lives of women living with PCOS.

As a board-certified obstetrician/gynecologist with affiliations to Northwell Health/ Long Island Jewish Medical Center and an honored recipient of the Special Excellence in Endoscopic Procedures Award, Barbara A. Hessel, MD. FACOG is ideally positioned to offer professional insights into the struggles associated with PCOS. She can provide the necessary support, education, and care to navigate this condition, improve your quality of life, and ensure your overall wellness. Let Dr. Hessel empower you to face your diagnosis head-on and live a fuller, healthier life. Contact Barbara A. Hessel, MD. FACOG to schedule an appointment!